Jet A1

Jet A-1 is a type of aviation fuel most commonly used for commercial aircraft powered by gas-turbine engines. Jet A-1 is a standardized international specification and must meet DEF STAN 91-91, ASTM specification D1655 & IATA Guidance Material (Kerosene Type), NATO Code F-35.

JOINT FUELLING SYSTEM CHECK LIST FOR JET A-1

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TEST METHOD
Property Limits IP ASTM Remarks
APPEARANCE
Visual appearance Clear, bright and visually free from solid matter and un-dissolved water at ambient fuel temperature
Colour Report D 156 or D 6045 See Note 1
Particulate contamination mg/L Max 1.0 423 D 5452 See Note 2
Particulate, cumulative channel particle counts, ISO Code & Individual Channel Counts 564 or 565 or 577 See Note 3
≥ 4 μm(c) Report
≥ 6 μm(c) Report
≥ 14 μm(c) Report
≥ 21 μm(c) Report
≥ 25 μm(c) Report
≥ 30 μm(c) Report
COMPOSITION
Total Acidity, mg KOH/g Max 0.015 354 D 3242 See Note 4
Aromatics, % v/v. Max 25.0 156 D 1319
OR Total Aromatics, % v/v Max 26.5 436 D 6379 See Note 5
Sulphur, Total, % m/m Max 0.30 336 D 1266 or D 2622 or D 4294 or D 5453
Sulphur, Mercaptan, % m/m Max 0.0030 342 D 3227
OR Doctor Test Negative 30 D 4952 See Note 6
Refinery Components at point of manufacture: See Note 7
Non Hydroprocessed Components, %v/v Report (incl. 'nil' or '100%’)
Mildly Hydroprocessed Components, % v/v Report (incl. 'nil' or '100%’)
Severely Hydroprocessed Components, % v/v Report (incl. 'nil' or '100%’)
Synthetic Components, %v/v Report (incl. ‘nil’ or ‘50%’) See Note 4 for limits for synthetic components
INCIDENTAL MATERIALS
Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME), mg/kg Max 50 585 or 583 or 590 or 599 ASTM D7797 See Notes 8, 9 and 10
VOLATILITY
Distillation 123 D86 or D7345., See Note 11
Initial Boiling Point, ºC Report
Fuel Recovered See Note 11
10% v/v at ºc Max 205.0 Or IP 406 or D 2887
50% v/v at ºC Report see Note 12
90% v/v at ºC Report
End Point, ºC Max 300.0
Residue, % v/v Max 1.5
Loss, % v/v Max 1.5
Flash Point, ºC Min 38.0 170 or 523 D 56 or D 3828
Density at 15ºC, kg/m³ 775.0 min to 840.0 max 160 or 365 D 1298 or D 4052 See Note 13
FLUIDITY
Freezing Point, ºC Max -47.0 16 or 435 or 528 or 529 D 5972 or D 7153 or D 7154 See Note 14
Viscosity at -20ºC, mm2/s(cSt) Max 8.000 71 D 445 or D7042, See Note 15
COMBUSTION
Specific Energy, net, MJ/kg Min 42.80 12 or 355 D 3338 or D 4809 See Note 16
Smoke Point, mm Min 25.0 598 D 1322 See Note 17
OR
Smoke Point, mm Min 18.0 598 D 1322 See Note 17
AND Naphthalenes, % vol Max 3.00 D 1840
CORROSION
Corrosion, Copper strip, classification (2 hours +/- 5 min. at 100 ºC +/- 1ºC) Max 1 154 D 130
STABILITY
Thermal Stability (JFTOT) 323 D 3241 See Note 18
Control temperature, ºC Min 260 323 D 3241 See Note 18
Filter Pressure Differential, mm Hg Max 25
One of the following requirements shall be met:
(1) Annex B VTR Less than 3, no 'Peacock' or 'Abnormal' colour deposits
(2) Annex C ITR or Annex D ETR, average over area of 2.5mm² Max 85
CONTAMINANTS
Existent Gum, mg/100ml Max 7 540 D 381
Microseparometer (MSEP), rating
Fuel with Static Dissipator Additive Min 70 D 3948 See Note 19
OR
Fuel without Static Dissipator Additive Min 85
CONDUCTIVITY
Electrical Conductivity, pS/m 50 min to 600 max 274 D 2624 See Note 20
LUBRICITY
BOCLE wear scar diameter, mm Max 0.85 D 5001 See Note 21
ADDITIVES (Names and approval code from DEF STAN 91-091/9 should be quoted on quality certificates).
Antioxidant, mg/l (in final batch Max 24.0 See Note 22
in hydroprocessed & synth. fuels (Mandatory) Min 17.0 See Note 23
in non-hydroprocessed fuels (Optional) Ma 24.0 See Note 24
Metal Deactivator, mg/l (Optional) *
First Doping Max 2.0
Cumulative concentration after field re-doping Max 5.7
Static Dissipator, mg/l*
First Doping Max 3.0
Cumulative concentration after field re-doping Max 5.0

Notes

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